Fixed Windows

Ventilation: 0%
Sashes:
Fixed
Operation:
Stationary

Fixed windows are comprised of a frame and a static sash. If paired with operable windows, the thickness of the fixed sash should best match the cross-sectional dimensions of the operable sash.
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Casement Windows

Ventilation: 100%
Sashes: Side-Hinged
Operation: Outward swing
Variations: Screen, sliding track, vertical mullion, floating astragal

Casement windows are side-hinged with sashes that swing outward. Because of their outward rotation, casement windows provide significant direct ventilation and are often better suited for ventilation purposes compared to windows of equal size.

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Awning & Hopper Windows

Ventilation: 100%
Sashes (Awning):
Top-hinged
Operation (Awning):
Outward swing
Sashes (Hopper):
Bottom-hinged
Operation (Hopper):
Inward swing
Variations:
Screens, vertical sashes, stiles

Awning windows haves top-hinged sashes that swing outward from their frame. Hopper windows haves bottom-hinged sashes that swing inward from their frame. Both variations of window types allow for direct ventilation when open and equally have low air leakage rates due to their sashes pressing tightly against the frame when closed.
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Sliding Windows

Ventilation: 50% max, flexible opening
Sashes: Two or more
Operation: Slides along tracks
Variations: Double, single, screen, pivot capable

Sliding windows have two or more sashes that slide horizontally. Double-sliding windows allow for both sashes to slide, while the single-sliding option only allows for one sash to slide while the other remains fixed. An advantage to slider windows is their ability to adjust ventilation from being totally open (50% max) to reducing air flow to a small opening.
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Double-Hung Windows

Ventilation: 50% max
Sashes: Two vertical
Operation: Slides along tracks
Variations: Double, single, screen, counterweights, pivot capable

Double-hung windows have two or more sashes that slide vertically. Double-hung windows allow for both sashes to slide in separate tracks, while the single-sliding option only allows for one sash to slide while the other remains fixed. An advantage to slider windows is their ability to adjust ventilation from being totally open (50% max) to reducing air flow to a small opening. The sashes of a double-hung window remain held in place through the use of counterweights, friction, or pretensioned springs.
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Jalousie Windows

Ventilation: 100% max
Louvers: Horizontal
Operation: Simultaneous pivot (jalousie), fixed (louver)
Variations: Louver dimensions, louver materiality, operable (jalousie) or fixed (louver)
Use: Mild climates; control ventilation or visibility

Jalousie windows, or louver/louvre windows, is a window type with horizontal louvers set in a common frame with a track that allows for the user to simultaneously pivot the louvers. Because of this control, the jalousie window type can flexibly adjust airflow, light, and privacy with ease. Louvered windows have been commonly used in mild climates where operability can provide desirable ventilation during sun, rain, and cooler months.
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Pivoting Windows

Ventilation: 100%
Sashes: Pivoting
Operation: Rotates 90°-180° around axis
Uses: For cleaning, maintenance, emergency ventilation

Pivoting windows are a type of window with sashes that can rotate 90°-180° around a horizontal or vertical axis usually located on or near the center of the sash. The rotation of a pivoting window allows for full ventilation, but cannot be equipped with a screen for filtering. Because of the lack of control and safety in a fully pivoting panel, this window type is generally reserved for use only in special situations requiring cleaning, maintenance, service, or emergency ventilation.
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