Window Operation

Buildings

Window Operation

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Fixed Windows
Front elevation drawing of a Fixed Window

Fixed windows are comprised of a frame and a static sash. If paired with operable windows, the thickness of the fixed sash should best match the cross-sectional dimensions of the operable sash.

Fixed windows are comprised of a frame and a static sash. If paired with operable windows, the thickness of the fixed sash should best match the cross-sectional dimensions of the operable sash.

Fixed Windows
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Ventilation: 0%
Sashes:
Fixed
Operation:
Stationary

Drawings include:
Fixed Windows front elevation, axon

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Double-Hung Windows
Front elevation drawing of a Double-Hung window

Double-hung windows have two or more sashes that slide vertically. Double-hung windows allow for both sashes to slide in separate tracks, while the single-sliding option only allows for one sash to slide while the other remains fixed. An advantage to slider windows is their ability to adjust ventilation from being totally open (50% max) to reducing air flow to a small opening. The sashes of a double-hung window remain held in place through the use of counterweights, friction, or pretensioned springs. Variations on the sliding window are: double or single tracks, screens on the interior or exterior unit, and the possibility of a pivoting hinge on the sash.

Double-hung windows have two or more sashes that slide vertically. Double-hung windows allow for both sashes to slide in separate tracks, while the single-sliding option only allows for one sash to slide while the other remains fixed.

Double-Hung Windows
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Ventilation: 50% max
Sashes: Two vertical
Operation: Slides along tracks
Variations: Double, single, screen, counterweights, pivot capable

Drawings include:
Double-Hung Window front elevation, axon

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Jalousie Windows
Illustration of a Jalousie Window viewed from the front profile

Jalousie windows, or louver/louvre windows, is a window type with horizontal louvers set in a common frame with a track that allows for the user to simultaneously pivot the louvers. Because of this control, the jalousie window type can flexibly adjust airflow, light, and privacy with ease. Louvered windows have been commonly used in mild climates where operability can provide desirable ventilation during sun, rain, and cooler months. Variations include the possibility to vary louver widths and materiality, and also whether the window is operable (jalousie) or fixed (louver).

Jalousie windows, or louver/louvre windows, is a window type with horizontal louvers set in a common frame with a track that allows for the user to simultaneously pivot the louvers. Because of this control, the jalousie window type can flexibly adjust airflow, light, and privacy with ease.

Jalousie Windows
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Ventilation: 100% max
Louvers: Horizontal
Operation: Simultaneous pivot (jalousie), fixed (louver)
Variations: Louver dimensions, louver materiality, operable (jalousie) or fixed (louver)
Use: Mild climates; control ventilation or visibility

Drawings include:
Jalousie Window front elevation, axon drawing

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Awning & Hopper Windows
Front elevation drawing of Awning & Hopper Windows

Awning windows haves top-hinged sashes that swing outward from their frame. Hopper windows haves bottom-hinged sashes that swing inward from their frame. Both variations of window types allow for direct ventilation when open and equally have low air leakage rates due to their sashes pressing tightly against the frame when closed. Like casement windows, the entire window face can be opened. Variations on awning and hopper assembly include screens to control breezes, and the choice for either vertically stacked sashes or meeting with a stile.

Awning windows haves top-hinged sashes that swing outward from their frame. Hopper windows haves bottom-hinged sashes that swing inward from their frame. Both variations of window types allow for ventilation when open and have low air leakage rates as their sashes close tightly against the frame.

Awning & Hopper Windows
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Ventilation: 100%
Sashes (Awning):
Top-hinged
Operation (Awning):
Outward swing
Sashes (Hopper):
Bottom-hinged
Operation (Hopper):
Inward swing
Variations:
Screens, vertical sashes, stiles

Drawings include:
Awning & Hopper Windows front elevation, axon

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Casement Windows
Casement Window front elevation drawing

Casement windows are side-hinged with sashes that swing outward. Because of their outward rotation, casement windows provide significant direct ventilation and are often better suited for ventilation purposes compared to windows of equal size. Casements generally have lower rates of air leakage compared to sliding windows because the sash presses upon the frame when closing. Variations on the casement window include: interior screens to control breezes, tracks for the ends of the sashes to slide along as the window opens outward, and the option for a vertical mullion or a floating astragal connection for the sashes to close on.

Casement windows are side-hinged with sashes that swing outward. Because of their outward rotation, casement windows provide significant direct ventilation and are often better suited for ventilation purposes compared to windows of equal size.


Casement Windows
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Ventilation: 100%
Sashes: Side-Hinged
Operation: Outward swing
Variations: Screen, sliding track, vertical mullion, floating astragal

Drawings include:
Casement Window front elevation, axon

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