Illustration of a man walking up a ramp

Ramps are inclined surfaces that join different levels of a space. Commonly used at the entrances of buildings to accommodate level changes from the exterior grade to the interior floor, ramps provide accessibility for wheelchair users, individuals with disabilities, and wheeled equipment. The maximum slope of a ramp is calculated to provide comfortable and easy access to the building. Low ramp slope ratios will require longer runs, while steeper slopes can have shorter lengths.

Diagram drawing measuring ADA ramp slopes dimensioned for accessibility
Ramp Slopes

Maximum Slope: 1:12
Minimum Slope: >1:20
Maximum Rise: 30” | 76.2 cm
Maximum Horizontal Run (1:12-1:16): 30’ | 9.14 m
Maximum Horizontal Run (1:16-1:20): 40’ | 12.19 m

A ramp is comprised of horizontal sloped runs connected by level landings between runs. The least possible slope should be used whenever possible. The maximum allowable slope in any new construction is 1:12 with a maximum rise of 30” | 76.2 cm without a landing.
Details & Downloads
Multiple elevation drawings comparing ramp slopes based on incline and run lengths
A ramp is comprised of horizontal sloped runs connected by level landings between runs. The least possible slope should be used whenever possible. The maximum allowable slope in any new construction is 1:12 with a maximum rise of 30” | 76.2 cm without a landing.
Details & Downloads
Dimensioned drawing measuring the minimum widths and clearances of an ADA ramp
Ramp Widths

Minimum Clear Width: 36” | 91.4 cm
Cross Slope: < 1:50
Handrail Height: 34”-38” | 86.4-96.5 cm

ADA accessible ramps must maintain a minimum clear width of 36” | 91.4 cm at all times. The cross slope along the width of any ramp must be less than 1:50 | < 2%. The 36” | 91.4 cm clear width must be maintained between all including handrails.
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ADA accessible ramps must maintain a minimum clear width of 36” | 91.4 cm at all times. The cross slope along the width of any ramp must be less than 1:50 | < 2%. The 36” | 91.4 cm clear width must be maintained between all including handrails.
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Ramp - Straight Run

Landing Length (Minimum): 60” | 152.4 cm
Landing Width (Minimum): At least as wide as the ramp run

Straight run ramps are accessible ramps designed without any changes in direction along the accessible route. Straight run ramp landings must maintain widths at least the width of the ramp runs connected to it. The length of landings along a straight rump ramp must be at least 60” | 152.4 cm.
Details & Downloads
Dimensioned drawing of a straight run ADA ramp with landings
Straight run ramps are accessible ramps designed without any changes in direction along the accessible route. Straight run ramp landings must maintain widths at least the width of the ramp runs connected to it. The length of landings along a straight rump ramp must be at least 60” | 152.4 cm.
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Ramp - Switchback

Landing Depth (Minimum): 60” | 152.4 cm
Landing Width (Minimum): 60” | 152.4 cm
Landing Length (Minimum): Combined widths of both runs

Switchback ramps are accessible ramps designed with a 180° change of direction along the accessible route. The landings of switchback ramps must maintain consistent minimum widths and depths of 60” | 152.4 cm along the entire change of direction running parallel to the ramp run.
Details & Downloads
Plan and elevation drawings of an ADA ramp with a switchback layout with dimensions for length and width
Switchback ramps are accessible ramps designed with a 180° change of direction along the accessible route. The landings of switchback ramps must maintain consistent minimum widths and depths of 60” | 152.4 cm along the entire change of direction running parallel to the ramp run.
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Ramp - Turning

Landing Depth (Minimum): 60” | 152.4 cm
Landing Width (Minimum): 60” | 152.4 cm

Turned ramps are accessible ramps designed with a 90° change of direction along the accessible route. The landings of turning ramps must have minimum widths and lengths of 60” | 152.4 cm in both directions at the moment that the turn occurs.
Details & Downloads
Dimensioned drawings of an ADA ramp with regulation landings for turning a corner
Turned ramps are accessible ramps designed with a 90° change of direction along the accessible route. The landings of turning ramps must have minimum widths and lengths of 60” | 152.4 cm in both directions at the moment that the turn occurs.
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Ramp Handrails - Wall

Handrail Height: 34”-38” | 86.4-96.5 cm above ramp surface
Space Between Handrail and Wall: 1.5” | 3.8 cm
Handrail Extensions (Landings): 12” | 30.5 cm
Clear Width (Minimum): 36” | 91.4 cm between handrails

Wall mounted ramp handrails are handrails used along any accessible ramp that is comprised of walls on one or either side of the run. When handrails are attached to a wall, an offset gap of at least 1.5” | 3.8 cm must be continuously maintained between the handrail and the wall surface.
Details & Downloads
Dimensioned drawings of ADA ramp guardrails with wall mounted handrails in elevation and section
Wall mounted ramp handrails are handrails used along any accessible ramp that is comprised of walls on one or either side of the run. When handrails are attached to a wall, an offset gap of at least 1.5” | 3.8 cm must be continuously maintained between the handrail and the wall surface.
Details & Downloads
Ramp Handrails - Utility

Handrail Height: 34”-38” | 86.4-96.5 cm above ramp surface
Handrail Extensions (Landings): 12” | 30.5 cm
Clear Width (Minimum): 36” | 91.4 cm between closest element (handrail or curb)
Edge Protection (Curb): 4” | 10.2 cm high
Edge Protection (Lower Guardrail): Prevents 4” | 10.2 cm diameter sphere

Utility ramp handrails are safety components used along a ramp that provide user assistance and protection from falling. Utility handrails must include either a curbs at a minimum of 4” | 10.2 cm high, or an integrated parallel bottom bar that restricts the passage of a 4” | 10.2 cm diameter sphere.
Details & Downloads
Illustrations dimensioning an ADA ramp with utility handrails with measurements for height and length
Utility ramp handrails are safety components used along a ramp that provide user assistance and protection from falling. Utility handrails must include either a curbs at a minimum of 4” | 10.2 cm high, or an integrated parallel bottom bar that restricts the passage of a 4” | 10.2 cm diameter sphere.
Details & Downloads
Ramp Handrails - Vertical

Handrail Height: 34”-38” | 86.4-96.5 cm above ramp surface
Handrail Extensions (Landings): 12” | 30.5 cm
Clear Width (Minimum): 36” | 91.4 cm between closest element (handrail or curb)
Vertical Balustrade Spacing: Prevents 4” | 10.2 cm diameter sphere

Vertical ramp guardrails are common systems used for accessible ramps that combine handrails with a guardrail made up of a series of vertical balustrades. For edge protection, vertical guardrails use balustrades spaced to continuously prevent the passage of a 4” | 10.2 cm diameter sphere.
Details & Downloads
Elevation and section drawings with dimensions of an ADA ramp with vertical guardrails
Vertical ramp guardrails are common systems used for accessible ramps that combine handrails with a guardrail made up of a series of vertical balustrades. For edge protection, vertical guardrails use balustrades spaced to continuously prevent the passage of a 4” | 10.2 cm diameter sphere.
Details & Downloads

Common Questions