Ramps

Ramps are inclined surfaces that join different levels of a space. Commonly used at the entrances of buildings to accommodate level changes from the exterior grade to the interior floor, ramps provide accessibility for wheelchair users, individuals with disabilities, and wheeled equipment. The maximum slope of a ramp is calculated to provide comfortable and easy access to the building. Low ramp slope ratios will require longer runs, while steeper slopes can have shorter lengths.

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Ramps

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Ramps

Ramp Handrails - Wall

Wall mounted ramp handrails are handrails used along any accessible ramp that is comprised of walls on one or either side of the run. Curbs are not required if the walls are continuously connected to the ramp surface.

Handrails along both sides of a ramp are required on any ramp system with a rise greater than 6” | 15.2 cm or a horizontal run greater than 72” | 182.9 cm. The top grippable surface of any ramp handrail must be set at a height between 34”-38” | 86.4-96.5 cm above the ramp surface and a minimum clear width of 36” | 91.4 cm must be provided between handrails. When handrails are attached to a wall, an offset gap of at least 1.5” | 3.8 cm must be continuously maintained between the handrail and the wall surface. In situations where a handrail is not continuous, handrails must extend at least another 12” | 30.5 cm parallel to the flat surface of the ramp landing. Inner handrails on a switchback or turned ramp must always be continuous.

Dimensioned drawings of ADA ramp guardrails with wall mounted handrails in elevation and section
Wall mounted ramp handrails are handrails used along any accessible ramp that is comprised of walls on one or either side of the run. When handrails are attached to a wall, an offset gap of at least 1.5” | 3.8 cm must be continuously maintained between the handrail and the wall surface.
Dimensioned drawings of ADA ramp guardrails with wall mounted handrails in elevation and section
Ramp Handrails - Wall

*Under Development*

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Handrail Height: 34”-38” | 86.4-96.5 cm above ramp surface
Space Between Handrail and Wall: 1.5” | 3.8 cm
Handrail Extensions (Landings): 12” | 30.5 cm
Clear Width (Minimum): 36” | 91.4 cm between handrails

Drawings include:
Ramp Guardrails - Wall Mounted Handrails side elevation, section, side (wheelchair user), section (wheelchair user)

Details & Downloads
Ramp - Straight Run

Straight run ramps are accessible ramps designed without any changes in direction along the accessible route. Requiring landings at both the top and bottom of the ramp run, straight run ramp landings must maintain widths that are at least the dimension of the ramp runs connected to it. The length of landings along a straight rump ramp must be at least 60” | 152.4 cm.

Dimensioned drawing of a straight run ADA ramp with landings
Straight run ramps are accessible ramps designed without any changes in direction along the accessible route. Straight run ramp landings must maintain widths at least the width of the ramp runs connected to it. The length of landings along a straight rump ramp must be at least 60” | 152.4 cm.
Dimensioned drawing of a straight run ADA ramp with landings
Ramp - Straight Run

*Under Development*

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Landing Length (Minimum): 60” | 152.4 cm
Landing Width (Minimum): At least as wide as the ramp run

Drawings include:
Ramp Landings plan (wheelchair user), elevation

Details & Downloads
Ramp Slopes
Diagram drawing measuring ADA ramp slopes dimensioned for accessibility

A ramp is comprised of horizontal sloped runs connected by level landings between runs. Any slope greater than 1:20 and less than 1:12 along an accessible route shall be considered a ramp that is required to comply with ADA accessibility codes and compliances. The least possible slope should be used whenever possible. The maximum allowable slope in any new construction is 1:12 with a maximum rise of 30” | 76.2 cm without a landing. A ramp with a slope between 1:12 and 1:16 can have a maximum horizontal length of 30’ | 9.14 m without a landing. A ramp with a slope between 1:16 and 1:20 can have a horizontal run up to 40’ | 12.19 m before requiring a landing.

Multiple elevation drawings comparing ramp slopes based on incline and run lengths
A ramp is comprised of horizontal sloped runs connected by level landings between runs. The least possible slope should be used whenever possible. The maximum allowable slope in any new construction is 1:12 with a maximum rise of 30” | 76.2 cm without a landing.
Multiple elevation drawings comparing ramp slopes based on incline and run lengths
Ramp Slopes

*Under Development*

Height:
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Maximum Slope: 1:12
Minimum Slope: >1:20
Maximum Rise: 30” | 76.2 cm
Maximum Horizontal Run (1:12-1:16): 30’ | 9.14 m
Maximum Horizontal Run (1:16-1:20): 40’ | 12.19 m

Drawings include:
Ramp Slopes side elevation (detail), side (runs)

Details & Downloads
Ramp Widths
Dimensioned drawing measuring the minimum widths and clearances of an ADA ramp

ADA accessible ramps must maintain a minimum clear width of 36” | 91.4 cm at all times. The cross slope along the width of any ramp must be less than 1:50 | < 2%. The 36” | 91.4 cm clear width must be maintained between all including handrails. Ramp surfaces should constructed as slip-resistant, stable, and firm systems.

ADA accessible ramps must maintain a minimum clear width of 36” | 91.4 cm at all times. The cross slope along the width of any ramp must be less than 1:50 | < 2%. The 36” | 91.4 cm clear width must be maintained between all including handrails.
Ramp Widths

*Under Development*

Height:
Width:
Length:
Depth:
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Area:

Minimum Clear Width: 36” | 91.4 cm
Cross Slope: < 1:50
Handrail Height: 34”-38” | 86.4-96.5 cm

Drawings include:
Ramp Width section (wheelchair user)

Details & Downloads
Ramp Handrails - Vertical

Vertical ramp guardrails are common safety systems used for accessible ramps that combine required handrails with a guardrail made up of a series of vertical balustrades. Vertical guardrails must double as both an assistive handrail and a guardrail that prevents users from accessing the edge of the ramp. For edge protection, vertical guardrails are made up of a balustrades that must be spaced to continuously prevent the passage of a 4” | 10.2 cm diameter sphere.

Handrails along both sides of a ramp are required on any ramp system with a rise greater than 6” | 15.2 cm or a horizontal run greater than 72” | 182.9 cm. The top grippable surface of any ramp handrail must be set at a height between 34”-38” | 86.4-96.5 cm above the ramp surface and a minimum clear width of 36” | 91.4 cm must be provided between handrails. In situations where a handrail is not continuous, handrails must extend at least another 12” | 30.5 cm parallel to the flat surface of the ramp landing. Inner handrails on a switchback or turned ramp must always be continuous. The ends of any handrail should be rounded or returned smoothly to the floor, wall, or post.

Elevation and section drawings with dimensions of an ADA ramp with vertical guardrails
Vertical ramp guardrails are common systems used for accessible ramps that combine handrails with a guardrail made up of a series of vertical balustrades. For edge protection, vertical guardrails use balustrades spaced to continuously prevent the passage of a 4” | 10.2 cm diameter sphere.
Elevation and section drawings with dimensions of an ADA ramp with vertical guardrails
Ramp Handrails - Vertical

*Under Development*

Height:
Width:
Length:
Depth:
Weight:
Area:

Handrail Height: 34”-38” | 86.4-96.5 cm above ramp surface
Handrail Extensions (Landings): 12” | 30.5 cm
Clear Width (Minimum): 36” | 91.4 cm between closest element (handrail or curb)
Vertical Balustrade Spacing: Prevents 4” | 10.2 cm diameter sphere

Drawings include:
Ramp Guardrails - Vertical Handrails

Details & Downloads
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